Black men who have sex with men MSM and women but who do not identify as gay or disclose their bisexual activities to main female partners, also known Bisexual black female men "on the down-low," have been cited as the main reason for the increase in HIV infections in black women.
A total of 24 articles and two conference abstracts were selected for review.
Data from existing studies of MSM reveal low agreement between professed sexual identity and corresponding sexual behavior among black and other MSM; show that black MSM are more likely than MSM of other racial or ethnic groups to be Bisexual black female active or identified; and, compared with white MSM, are less likely to disclose their bisexual or homosexual activities to others. The high prevalence of HIV in the black community and the greater likelihood of bisexuality among black men place heterosexual black women at risk for HIV infection.
However, the contribution of high-risk heterosexual black men to the rising HIV caseload among black women has been largely ignored. Future research must evaluate the relative contributions of bisexual men and exclusively heterosexual black Bisexual black female to HIV cases among black women. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. HIV incidence among young men who have sex with men--seven U.
Bisexual black female of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and sexual behaviors in bisexual African-American and Hispanic men visiting a sexually transmitted disease clinic in New York City. Black men who have sex with men and the HIV epidemic: Am J Public Health. The extent of bisexual behaviour in HIV-infected men and implications for transmission to their female sex partners.
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Racial and ethnic differences in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 seroprevalence among homosexual and bisexual men. Self-reported behavior patterns of patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. Interrelationships among douching practices, risky sexual practices, and history of self-reported sexually transmitted diseases in an urban population.
HIV risk among homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual male and female youths.
The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men.
Psychosocial predictors of risky sexual behaviors in African American men: Sexual behavior in the United States Prevalence and patterns of same-gender sexual contact among men.
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Increasing prevalence of male homosexual partnerships and practices in Britain Expectancies of sexual "escape" and sexual Bisexual black female among drug and alcohol-involved gay and bisexual men.
HIV risk differences between African-American and white men who have sex with men. Racial differences in social support and mental health in men with HIV infection: High-risk sexual behavior and condom use among gay and bisexual African-American men. Multiple sexual partners among blacks in high-risk cities.
Human immunodeficiency virus-related risk behavior among African-American females. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical correlates of inconsistent condom use in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples.
Multiple sexual partners among U. Heterosexual experiences Bisexual black female partnerships of urban, low-income African-American and Hispanic youth. Multiple sexual partners and their psychosocial correlates: The sexual behavior of US adults: Reduction in sexual risk behaviors and infection rates among African Americans and Mexican Americans.
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Contextual factors and the black-white disparity in heterosexual HIV transmission. Sexual experiences and condom use of heterosexual, low-income African American and Hispanic youth practicing relative monogamy, serial monogamy, and nonmonogamy.
Sexual risk behavior among heterosexual intravenous drug users: Risk factors for urethritis in heterosexual men. The role of fellatio and other sexual practices.
Sexually transmitted diseases among young heterosexual urban adults. Anal intercourse and knowledge of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among minority-group female adolescents.
Selective screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a primary care population of women. Levels and predictors of HIV risk behavior among women in low-income public housing developments.
Love, sex, and power. Considering women's realities in HIV prevention.
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