Dwarfismalso known as short statureoccurs when an organism is extremely small. In cases of proportionate dwarfism, both the limbs and torso are unusually small.
Normal intelligence and lifespan are usual. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Those with bone growth disorders can sometimes be treated Midget traits people surgery, or physical therapy.
Hormone disorders can also be treated with hormone replacement therapy before the child's growth plates fuse. Individual accommodations, such as specialized furniture, are often used by people with dwarfism. In addition to the medical aspect of the condition, there are also social aspects. For a person with dwarfism, height discrimination can lead to ridicule in childhood and discrimination in adulthood.
A defining characteristic of dwarfism is an adult height less than the 2. There is a wide range of physical characteristics. Variations in individuals are identified by diagnosing and monitoring the underlying disorders.
There may not be any complications outside adapting to their size. Short stature is a common replacement of the term 'dwarfism', especially in a medical context.
Short stature is clinically defined as a height within the lowest 2. However, those with mild skeletal dysplasias may not be affected by dwarfism. In some cases of untreated hypochondroplasiamales grow up to 5 feet 5 Midget traits people.
Though that is short in a relative context, it does not fall into the extreme ranges of the growth charts. Disproportionate dwarfism is characterized by shortened limbs or a shortened torso. In achondroplasia one has an average-sized trunk with short limbs and a larger forehead.
Spinal stenosisear infection, and hydrocephalus are common. In case of spinal dysostosisone has a small trunk, with Midget traits people limbs.
Proportionate dwarfism is marked by a short torso with short limbs,  thus leading to a height that is significantly below average. There may be long periods without any significant growth.
Sexual development is often delayed or impaired into adulthood. This dwarfism type is caused by an endocrine disorder and not a skeletal dysplasia.
Physical effects of malformed bones vary according to the specific disease. Many involve joint pain caused by abnormal bone alignment, or from nerve compression. Some forms of dwarfism are associated with disordered function of other organs, such as the brain or liversometimes severely enough to be more of an impairment than the unusual bone growth.
Mental effects also vary according to the specific underlying syndrome. In most cases of skeletal dysplasia, such as achondroplasia, mental function is not impaired. Unless the brain is directly affected by the underlying disorder, there is little to no chance of mental Midget traits people that can be attributed to dwarfism.
The psycho-social limitations of society may be more disabling than the physical symptoms, especially in childhood and adolescence, but people with dwarfism vary greatly in the degree to which social participation and emotional health are affected.
Dwarfism can result from many medical conditions, each with its own separate symptoms and causes. Extreme shortness in humans with proportional body parts usually has a hormonal cause, such as growth-hormone deficiencyonce called pituitary dwarfism.
It produces Midget traits people short limbs, increased spinal curvature, and distortion of skull growth.
In achondroplasia the body's limbs are proportionately shorter than the trunk abdominal areawith a larger head than average and characteristic facial features. Achondroplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by the presence of a faulty allele in the genome.
If a pair of achondroplasia alleles are present, the result is fatal. Achondroplasia is a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3.
Research by urologist Harry Fisch of the Male Reproductive Center at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital indicates that in humans this defect may be exclusively inherited from the father and becomes increasingly probable with paternal age: Growth hormone deficiency GHD is a medical condition in which the body produces insufficient growth hormone.
Growth hormone, also called somatotropinis a polypeptide hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction. If this hormone is lacking, stunted or even halted growth may become apparent. Children with this disorder may grow Midget traits people and puberty may be delayed by several years or indefinitely. Growth hormone deficiency has no single definite cause. It can be caused by mutations of specific genes, damage to the pituitary gland, Turner's syndromepoor nutrition,  or even stress leading to psychogenic dwarfism.
Laron syndrome growth hormone insensitivity is another cause. Those with Midget traits people hormone issues tend to be proportionate. Other causes Midget traits people dwarfism are spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenitadiastrophic dysplasiapseudoachondroplasiahypochondroplasiaNoonan syndromeprimordial dwarfismTurner syndromeosteogenesis imperfecta OIand hypothyroidism.
Severe shortness with skeletal distortion also occurs in several of the Mucopolysaccharidoses and other storage Midget traits people. Serious chronic illnesses may produce dwarfism as a side effect. Harsh environmental conditions, such as malnutrition, may also produce dwarfism.
These types of dwarfism are indirect consequences of the generally unhealthy or malnourished condition of the individual, and not of any specific disease. The dwarfism often takes the form of simple short stature, without any deformities, thus leading to proportionate dwarfism. In societies where poor nutrition is widespread, the average height of the population may be reduced below its genetic potential by the lack of proper nutrition.
Sometimes there is no definitive cause of short stature. Dwarfism is often diagnosed in childhood on the basis of visible symptoms.
A physical examination can usually suffice to diagnose certain types of dwarfism, but genetic testing and diagnostic imaging Midget traits people be used to determine the exact condition. Short stature or stunted growth during youth is usually what brings the condition to medical attention.
Skeletal dysplasia is usually suspected because of obvious physical features e. Most children with suspected skeletal dysplasias are referred to a genetics clinic for diagnostic confirmation and genetic counseling.
Since about the yeargenetic tests for some of the specific disorders have become available. Midget traits people
During an initial medical evaluation of shortness, the absence of disproportion and other clues listed above usually indicates causes other than bone dysplasias. Dwarfism is usually caused by a genetic variant; achondroplasia is caused by a mutation on chromosome 4.
If dwarfism is caused by a medical disorder, the person is referred to by the underlying diagnosed disorder. Disorders causing dwarfism are often classified by Midget traits people.
Disproportionate dwarfism describes disorders that cause unusual proportions of the body parts, while proportionate dwarfism results in a generally uniform stunting of the body. Disorders that cause dwarfism may be classified according to one of hundreds of names, which are usually permutations of the following roots:.