Stopping power is the ability of a firearm or other weapon to cause enough ballistic trauma to a target human or animal to immediately incapacitate and thus stop the target.
This contrasts with lethality in that stopping power pertains only to a weapon's ability to incapacitate quickly, regardless of whether death ultimately occurs. Stopping power is related to the physical properties Deep penetration munitions the bulletbut the issue is complicated and not easily studied. Although higher caliber has traditionally been widely associated with higher stopping power, the physics involved are multifactorial, with caliber, muzzle velocitybullet massbullet shape, and bullet material all contributing.
Critics contend that the importance of "one-shot stop" statistics is overstated, pointing out that most gun encounters do not involve a "shoot once and see how the target reacts" situation. Stopping Deep penetration munitions is usually caused not by the force of the bullet but by the damaging effects of the bullet, which are typically a loss of bloodand with it, blood pressure. This is why in many instances a single gunshot wound GSWwith slow blood loss, does not stop the victim immediately.
More immediate Deep penetration munitions can result when a bullet damages parts of the central nervous systemsuch as the spine or brain, or when hydrostatic shock occurs.
The importance or lack thereof of hydrostatic shock and of momentum transfer in determining stopping power has long been controversial among gun users.
Some have ascribed great importance to hydrostatic shock; some have Deep penetration munitions to entirely discount it.
Not every GSW produces it. In response to addressing stopping power issues, the Mozambique Drill was developed to maximize the likelihood of a target's quick incapacitation. Historically, one type of ammunition has had the specific tradename "Manstopper".
The front acted as a hollow point deforming on impact while the base opened to seal the round in the barrel.
It was introduced in for use against "savage foes",  [note 1] but fell quickly from favor due to concerns of breaching the Hague Convention's international laws on military ammunition, and was replaced in by re-issued Mk II pointed-bullet ammunition.
Some sporting arms are also referred to as "stoppers" or "stopping rifles".
These powerful arms are often used by game hunters or their guides for stopping Deep penetration munitions suddenly charging animal, like a buffalo or an elephant. The concept of stopping power appeared in the 19th Century when colonial troops e. American in the Philippines during the Moro RebellionBritish in New Zealand during the Land Wars at close quarters found that their pistols were not able to stop charging native tribesmen.
This led to the introduction or reintroduction of larger caliber weapons such as the Deep penetration munitions. During the Seymour Expedition in China, at one of the battles at LangfangChinese Boxersarmed with swords and spears, charged the British and Americans, who were armed with guns. At point-blank range, one British soldier had to fire four. Only machine guns were effective in immediately stopping the Boxers.
In the Moro RebellionMoro Muslim Deep penetration munitions in suicide attacks continued to charge against American soldiers even after being shot. Panglima Hassan in the Hassan uprising had to be shot dozens of times before he died. Britain voted against a prohibition on their use at the Hague Convention ofalthough the prohibition only applied to international warfare.
A bullet will destroy or damage any tissues which it penetrates, creating a wound channel. It will also cause nearby tissue to stretch and expand as it passes through tissue. These two effects are typically referred to as permanent cavity the track left by the bullet as it penetrates flesh and temporary cavity, which, as the name implies, is the temporary instantaneous displacement caused as the bullet travels through flesh and is many times larger than the actual diameter of the bullet.
The degree to which permanent and temporary cavitation occur is dependent Deep penetration munitions the mass, diametermaterial, design and velocity of the bullet. This is because bullets crush tissue, and do not cut it. A bullet constructed with a half diameter ogive designed meplat and hard, solid copper alloy material may crush only the tissue directly in front of the bullet.
This type of bullet monolithic-solid rifle bullet is conducive to causing more temporary cavitation as the tissue flows around the bullet, resulting in a deep and narrow wound channel. A bullet constructed with a two diameter, hollow point ogive designed meplat and low- antimony lead -alloy core with a thin gilding metal jacket material will crush tissue in front and to the sides as the bullet expands.
Due to the energy expended in bullet expansion, velocity is Deep penetration munitions more quickly. This type of bullet hollow-point hand gun bullet is conducive to causing more permanent cavitation as the tissue is crushed and accelerated into other tissues by the bullet, causing a shorter and wider wound channel.
The exception to this general rule is non-expanding bullets which are long relative to their diameter. These tend to destabilize and yaw tumble soon after impact, increasing both temporary and permanent cavitation.
Bullets are constructed to behave in different ways, depending on the intended target. Different bullets Deep penetration munitions constructed variously to: To control the expansion of a bullet, meplat design and materials are engineered. The meplat designs are: The materials used to make bullets are: Some bullets are constructed by bonding the lead core to the jacket to promote higher weight retention upon impact, causing a larger and deeper wound channel.
Some bullets have a web in the center Deep penetration munitions the bullet to limit the expansion of the bullet while promoting penetration. Some bullets have dual cores to promote penetration.
Bullets that might be considered to have stopping power for dangerous large game animals are usually These bullets are monolithic-solids; full metal jacketed and tungsten steel insert. They are constructed to hold up during close range, high velocity impacts.